September 30, 2008

Star of the Day!

Thought for the day:

The government is merely a servant… merely a temporary servant; it cannot be its prerogative to determine what is right and what is wrong, and decide who is a patriot and who isn't. Its function is to obey orders, not originate them.


More Black Humour!

Black Humour!

With apologies to William Shakespeare - Friends, Romans, countrymen (from Julius Caesar)

Friends, Sri Lankans, countrymen, lend me your CASH! (Sorry I meant ears)

I come not to bad mouth Sakvithi, nor to praise him.

The evil that men do doesn’t live after them, if they get away with the loot!

The money isn’t oft interred with their bones;

But probably interred in some Swiss Bank Account!

So let it be with Sakvithi. The noble Edwin Ariyadasa

Hath told you Sakvithi was an ambitious bastard, greedy for cash, a con man ect;

If it were so, it was a grievous fault,

And grievously hath Sakvithi stolen away like a thief in the night,

Leaving me, the Noble Edwin and the rest to face the music!

For Edwin is an honourable though naïve man;

So are they all, all gullible men and women,

Come I to speak about Sakvithi’s disappearance.

(abducted by a ‘White Van’ or ‘Aliens’ so they say)

I thought he was my friend, faithful and just to me, as I was to him,

(What silly old coot I was!)

But Chinthana says he was ambitious;

And Chinthana is a miserable man.

(remember ‘Helping Hambanthota?’)

He hath brought many lands in Sri Lanka

And the land value of these properties

Have increased throughout the years!

Did this in Sakvithi seem ambitious?

(It bloody well did! If you ask me!)

When the poor have cried, Sakvithi hath smirked:

These ‘Gullible Sri Lankans’ should be made of sterner stuff:

Yet Chinthana says he was ambitious;

Because Sakvithi did not cut him into the deal!

And Chinthana is a miserable man.

You all did see that on the Full Moon Poya day,

Chinthana thrice presented him a ‘Deshabandu Award’,

Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition?

Yet Chinthana says he was ambitious;

And Chinthana is a miserable man,

Because the UNP and JVP say so!

I speak not to disprove that Chinthana spoke with forked tongue,

But here I am to speak what I do know. (or was made to believe!)

You all did love Sakvithi once, and trusted him with your cash:

What cause withholds you then, to curse him, and his mother and his ancestors?

O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts, you ‘Dumb and Gullible Sri Lankans!’

And men and women and policemen and sports stars and film stars have lost their reason. (and their Cash! Hoo! Hoo!)

Bear with me;

My heart is with Sakvithi, were ever he might be.

(Probably on a sunny beach in the Bahamas!)

The ‘Dirty Dog,’ didn’t take me with him,

Left me holding the can, when the ‘Shit hit the Fan!'

And I must pause till it come back to me.

The End (or is it?)

September 29, 2008

Star of the Day!

Thought for the day:

A teacher without a cane, is like a soldier without a rifle;
But who is the enemy?

A Purse For My Salary!

I joined because the salary was good.
They gave me an AK 47, a uniform and a helmet.
Everything except for a purse which I bought,
To put my salary in.

In the first fight I killed a boy.
Though I lost my helmet, I didn’t lose my purse.
Got wounded in the head,
But my salary was safe.

The second fight was worse.
We killed a few of them, and they killed a few of us,
I was wounded again,
But I didn’t lose my purse.

In the third fight I died,
I stepped on a mine which blew off both my legs.
As my eyes slowly closed, I cursed!
As they grabbed my purse from me.

The End

He died for a medal!

An hour later he died,
after the bomb fell from the sky.
He was just an innocent boy of five,
who did not know why he had to die.

“Breaking News” said, ‘Terrorist Hideout Destroyed!”
The only thing destroyed was the life,
of an innocent boy of five,
who did not know why he had to die.

Cain killed Able and what did he gain?
Bomb killed boy, and what did the pilot gain?
A Medal.

Now we know why he died.
But that innocent boy of five will never know.

Peace Is Not Marching Away To Be Killed!

Peace Is Not Marching Away To Be Killed.
The son never saw his father marching away to be killed.
His father was killed before he was born.
His mother never spoke of men ‘marching to the war’ or ‘marching to defeat terrorism,’
Or even ‘marching to save country, race and religion.’
She always spoke of men marching away to be killed.
She was first orphaned and then widowed when her father and husband,
Marched away to be killed.

Peace to her is the men she loves, not
Marching away to be killed.

Poems for those who care!

Definition Of War

What is war Mr. President?
War is Power.
War is six more years in office.
War is a rise in my popularity.
War is money in my bank account from arms deals.
War is a solution for unemployment.
War is a way to keep the people’s minds off the rising cost of living.

What is war Mr. Defence Secretary?
War is Power.
War is money in my bank account from arms deals.

What is war General?
War is Power.
War is Glory.
War is money in my bank account from arms deals.
War is the post of Ambassador in a foreign country after I retire.

Teacher what is war?
War is inevitable.
War is history in the making.

Monk what is war?
War is unfortunate.
War is safeguarding a 2500 year culture.
War is destroying terrorism.
War is safeguarding the country, race and religion.

Unemployed youth what is war?
War is employment.
War is a good salary.
War is 3 meals a day.
War is building our house with the salary I get.
War is collecting a dowry for my sister with the salary I get.

Kind Employer what is war?
War is profit.

Refugee what is war?
War is hell.
War is having my house bombed by a Mig.

Sister what is war?
War is my brothers marching away to their deaths.

Wife what is war?
War is widowhood.
War is my orphaned children.

Father what is war?
War is burying my sons one by one.

Mother what is war?
War is my 3 dead sons, and a fourth missing in action.

September 26, 2008

Stars of the day!

Thought for the day:

Naturally the common people don't want war; neither in Russia, nor in England, nor in America, nor in Germany. That is understood. But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.


World's Top 10!

The White Van Knight!

“Chinthana Man” raises the stakes in his ‘War on Tamils’. With the help of Lieutenant Gota Paka and District Attorney Basila Paka, “Chinthana Man” sets out to dismantle the ‘El Tea Tea Hoo Organization’ that plague the city streets. The partnership proves to be effective, but they soon find themselves prey to a reign of chaos unleashed by a rising criminal mastermind known to the terrified citizens of 'Funny Lanka' as The Joker, (also known as “Merv the Perv,” “Pissu Mervin,” "Dr.Delipihiya," ect;) You should hear what his friends call him!

Coming soon to a theater near you, Part 2 of the "The White Van Knight,".....await "Aliens abducted my Father, Brother and Grandfather!"

September 25, 2008

How to Spice Up the Olympics!

List of the 100 wealthiest people in the World

Click on the list to see a larger image.

This list of the 100 wealthiest people is a list of the world's 100 wealthiest people as of February 11, 2008, based on each person's total net worth. The total net worth is an estimate measured in United States dollars, based on the closing stock prices of the stock exchanges on which each person's company is listed, and exchange rates on February 11, 2008. Stock prices are defined as shares of ownership in a corporation, and exchange rates are defined as how much one currency is worth in terms of another. This list only represents each person's valuation on a single day due to daily fluctuations among exchange rates and stock valuations. The list does not include heads of state whose wealth is tied to their position.

The following list is the ranking of the world's richest billionaires on February 11, 2008, and does not reflect changes since that date. The top three countries with the most billionaires are: United States with over 400, Russia with 87, and India and Germany with 56 each.

September 24, 2008

A New Sri Lanka!

The policy of the Government of Sri Lanka is to "Bomb them all...and let GOD sort them out!"

Separatism around the world!

Separatism refers to the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial or gender separation from the larger group, often with demands for greater political autonomy and even for full political secession and the formation of a new state. Depending on their political situation and views, groups may refer to their organizing as independence, self-determination, partition or decolonization movements instead of, or in addition to, automatic, separatist or secession movements. While some critics may equate separatism and religious segregation, racial segregation or sexual segregation, separatists argue that separation by choice is not the same as government enforced segregation and serves useful purposes.

Motivations for separatism

Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including:

1. Emotional resentment of rival communities

2. Justified resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language,culture or religion

3. Propaganda by those who hope to gain politically from inter-group conflict and hatred

4. The economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion

5. Economic motivations of seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group

6. Preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition

7. Destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others

8. Geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires

9. Continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up.

Governmental responses

How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, and whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political and social factors, including movement leadership and the government’s response. Governments may respond in a number of ways, some of which are mutually exclusive. These may have little effect, satisfy separatist demands or even increase them.

1. Accede to separatist demands

2. Improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, linguistic, territorial, economic or political

3. Adopt “asymmetric federalism” where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations

4. Allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel strongly, through parliamentary voting, referendum, etc.

5. Settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states.

Types of separatist groups

Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics - “political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups.” Such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However, economic and political factors usually are critical in creating strong separatist movements from less active identity movements.


Religious groups and sects believe they should interact primarily with co-religionists.

1.English Christians in the 16th and 17th centuries who wished to separate from the Church of England and form independent local churches were influential politically under Oliver Cromwell, who was himself a Separatist. They were eventually called Congregationalists. The Pilgrims who established the first successful colony in New England were separatists.

2. Zionism sought the creation of the state of Israel as a Jewish homeland.

3. Muslim groups may seek to separate from each other, especially the Sunni and Shiite sects in Iraq and Lebanon.

4. Russia, China, India and the Philippines have Muslim-separatist groups.

5. Some British Muslims seek to have Sharia law recognized in predominantly Muslim areas of Britain.

6. Indonesia currently has both Christian and Muslim separatist groups. Predominantly Christian East Timor separated from Indonesia in 2002.

7. Members of animist and Christian tribes in Sudan seek to separate from the Muslim-dominated government.

8. Some Sikhs in India sought an independent nation of Khalistan during the 1970s and 1980s. The Khalistan movement inside India largely ended with the Indian military Operation Blue Star against Sikh militants and the retaliatory assassination of the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi. However, some outside India still support such a movement


Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which also may exist. Notable ethnic separatist movements include:

1. the Kurdish people whose lands and peoples were divided between Turkey, Syria, Iraq after World War. Also the Kurdish region in Iran.

2. Spain’s Basque, Catalan and Galician separatists.

3. France's Basque, Catalan, Corsican and Breton separatists,

4. the Soviet Union’s dissolution into its original ethnic groupings which formed their own nations of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia,Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.

5. Czechoslovakia’s split into ethnic Czech and Slovakian republics in 1993.

6. the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia dissolution into ethnic (and religious) based Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia,Slovenia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo.

7. Belgium granting Dutch-speaking Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia greater autonomy.

8. Switzerland’s division into cantons along geographical, religious and linguistic lines.

9. French-speaking Quebec debating and voting on separation from Canada over several decades.

10. Africa’s hundreds of ethnic groups are subsumed into 53 nation states, often leading to ethnic conflict and separatism, including in Angola, Algeria, Burundi, Congo and The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Uganda and Zimbabwe.

11.the Nigerian civil war (also known as the Biafran war) during the 1960s among Igbos, Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba; today’s ethnic and oil-related conflict in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

12.conflicts in Liberia between African-Liberians and Americo-Liberians, Africans who immigrated from the Americas after being freed from slavery.

13. conflicts between Zulus and Xhosa in South Africa during and after apartheid.

14. Boer-Afrikaner separatists.

15. the 1994 Hutu campaign of genocide against minority Tutsis in Rwanda.

16. Indian and Pakistani ethnic and linguistic groups seeking greater autonomy.

17. China’s Han majority dominance, including immigration into previously independent Tibet, Xinjiang or Uygur regions leading to renewed separatist efforts in those regions.

18. Serbia's ethnic Albanian minority separatism in Kosovo.

19. Alemannic Separatism

20. Separatism in Silesia

21. South Ossetia separatism in Georgia.

22. Rio Grande do Sul's separatism in Brazil

23. The Tamils of Sri Lanka who seek a separate state from that of the Sinhala Buddhists, who have dominated the minorities since Independence from the British since 1948.


Some groups seek to separate from others along racialist lines. They oppose inter-marriage with other races and seek separate schools, businesses, churches and other institutions or even separate societies, territories and governments.

1. Black separatism (or black nationalism) is a reaction to slavery in the United states and has been advanced by black leaders like Marcus Garvey and the Nation of Islam. Critical race theorists like New York University's Derrick Bell and University of Colorado's Richard Delgado argue the American legal, education and political party systems are rife with racism. They support efforts like all-black schools and dorms and question the efficacy of government-enforced integration.[24] In 2008 statements by Barack Obama’s former pastor Jeremiah Wright, Jr. revived the issue of the current relevance of black separatism.

2. Latino separatism, as embodied in the Chicano Movement (or Chicano nation) in the United States sought to recreate Aztlán, the mythical homeland of the Aztecs comprising the Southwestern United States which is home to the majority of Mexican Americans. They drew on theLatin American concepts of racial identity such as the bronze race and La Raza Cósmica. Today a small Raza Unida Party continues with similar goals. The Mexica Movement calls for an ouster of all white Anglo and European Americans from North America.

3. White separatism in the United States and Western Europe seeks separation and survival of the white race and limits to immigration by non-whites. Most separatists now reject any ideology of white supremacy, though most still are demonized by advocacy groups.

4. Native American separatism is advocated by some members of the Canadian First Nations, American Indian Movement, Republic of Lakotah (Lakota Sioux people in South Dakota), the Navajo or "Na-Dene" Nationalists in Arizona, tribal groups in Eastern Oklahoma.

5. Other political groups and social organizations promoted many kinds of ethnic, religious and cultural separatism in the Jewish-, Muslim- and Asian-American communities, such as the Black Muslims, the Jewish Defense League and east Asian gangs on the West Coast.


Separatist feminism is women’s choosing to separate from male-defined, male-dominated institutions, relationships, roles and activities. Lesbian separatism advocates lesbianism as the logical result of feminism. Some separatist feminists and lesbian separatists have chosen to live apart in intentional community, cooperatives and on land trusts

September 23, 2008

Star of the day!

Thought for the day:

Naturally the common people don't want war; neither in Russia, nor in England, nor in America, nor in Germany. That is understood. But after all, it is the leaders of the country who determine policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.


The Gulf Times gets it wrong...or did they?

Top Ten Reasons I Eat Meat!

It irks vegetarians.

Hamburgers taste like Heaven. That's why Indians worship cows.

Chuck Norris eats meat.

Help control the pet population. Have your pet filleted and eaten.

Jesus told me to, TWICE!
Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. (Genesis 9:3)


The next day, as they went on their journey and drew near the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray, about the sixth hour. Then he became very hungry and wanted to eat; but while they made ready, he fell into a trance and saw heaven opened and an object like a great sheet bound at the four corners, descending to him and let down to the earth. In it were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild beasts, creeping things, and birds of the air. And a voice came to him, “Rise, Peter; kill and eat.”
But Peter said, “Not so, Lord! For I have never eaten anything common or unclean.”
And a voice spoke to him again the second time, “What God has cleansed you must not call common.” This was done three times. And the object was taken up into heaven again.
(Acts 10:9-16)

I love kittens; they taste like chicken.

More than two thirds of vegetarians eventually die.

I hate fish.

Whenever I watch Bambi, I cannot decide who looks more delicious, Bambi or Thumper.

Adolf Hitler was a vegetarian. (Darn Godwin's Law!)'s_law

Timeline: Sri Lanka

A chronology of key events:

Fifth century BC - Indo-Aryan migrants from northern India settle on the island; the Sinhalese emerge as the most powerful of the various clans.

Third century BC - Beginning of Tamil migration from India.

1505 - Portuguese arrive in Colombo, marking beginning of European interest.

1815 - British become first European power to win control over whole island, known as Ceylon. Start bringing in Tamil labourers from southern India to work tea, coffee and coconut plantations.

1833 - English made official language.

1931 - British grant the right to vote and introduce power sharing.

1948 - Ceylon gains full independence.

Sinhala nationalism

1949 - Indian Tamil plantation workers disenfranchised.

1956 - Solomon Bandaranaike elected on wave of Sinhalese nationalism. Sinhala made sole official language and other measures introduced to bolster Sinhalese and Buddhist feeling. More than 100 Tamils killed in widespread violence after Tamil parliamentarians protest at new laws.

1958 - Anti-Tamil riots leave more than 200 people dead. Thousands of Tamils displaced.

1959 - Bandaranaike assassinated by a Buddhist monk. Succeeded by widow, Srimavo, who continues nationalisation programme.

1965 - Opposition United National Party wins elections and attempts to reverse nationalisation measures.

1970 - Srimavo Bandaranaike returns to power and extends nationalisation programme.

Ethnic tensions

1971 - Sinhalese Marxist uprising led by students and activists.

1972 - Ceylon changes its name to Sri Lanka and Buddhism given primary place as country's religion, further antagonising Tamil minority.

1976 - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) formed as tensions increase in Tamil-dominated areas of north and east.

1977 - Separatist Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) party wins all seats in Tamil areas. Anti-Tamil riots leave more than 100 Tamils dead.

1981 - Sinhala policemen accused of burning the Jaffna Public Library, causing further resentment in Tamil community.

1983 - 13 soldiers killed in LTTE ambush, sparking anti-Tamil riots leading to the deaths of an estimated several hundred Tamils. Start of what Tigers call "First Eelam War".

Civil war intensifies

1985 - First attempt at peace talks between government and LTTE fails.

1987 - Government forces push LTTE back into northern city of Jaffna. Government signs accords creating new councils for Tamil areas in north and east and reaches agreement with India on deployment of Indian peace-keeping force.

1988 - Left-wing and nationalist Sinhalese JVP begins campaign against Indo-Sri Lankan agreement.

1990 - Indian troops leave after getting bogged down in fighting in north. Violence between Sri Lankan army and separatists escalates. "Second Eelam War" begins.
Thousands of Muslims are expelled from northern areas by the LTTE.

1991 - LTTE implicated in assassination of Indian premier Rajiv Gandhi in southern India.

War and diplomacy

1993 - President Premadasa killed in LTTE bomb attack.

1994 - President Kumaratunga comes to power pledging to end war. Peace talks opened with LTTE.

1995 - "Third Eelam War" begins when rebels sink naval craft.

1995-2001 - War rages across north and east. Tigers bomb Sri Lanka's holiest Buddhist site. President Kumaratunga is wounded in a bomb attack. Suicide attack on the international airport destroys half the Sri Lankan Airlines fleet.

Peace moves

2002 February - Government and Tamil Tiger rebels sign a Norwegian-mediated ceasefire.
De-commissioning of weapons begins; the road linking the Jaffna peninsula with the rest of Sri Lanka reopens after 12 years; passenger flights to Jaffna resume. Government lifts ban on Tamil Tigers. Rebels drop demand for separate state.

2003 Tigers pull out of talks. Ceasefire holds.

2003 May - Country's worst-ever floods leave more than 200 people dead and drive some 4,000 people from their homes.

2004 March - Renegade Tamil Tiger commander, known as Karuna, leads split in rebel movement and goes underground with his supporters. Tiger offensive regains control of the east.

2004 July - Suicide bomb blast in Colombo - the first such incident since 2001.

2004 December - More than 30,000 people are killed when massive waves, generated by a powerful undersea earthquake off the coast of Indonesia, devastate coastal communities.

2005 June - Row over deal reached with Tamil Tiger rebels to share nearly $3bn in tsunami aid among Sinhalas, Tamils and Muslims.

2005 August - State of emergency after foreign minister is killed by a suspected Tiger assassin.

2005 November - Mahinda Rajapakse, prime minister at the time, wins presidential elections. Most Tamils in areas controlled by the Tamil Tigers do not vote.

Mounting violence

2006 February - Government and Tamil Tiger rebels declare their respect for the 2002 ceasefire at talks in Geneva.

2006 April - Explosions and rioting in Trincomalee, in the north-east, leave 16 people dead. Police blame Tamil Tiger rebels for the blasts, which come amid a marked escalation in deadly violence.

A suicide bomber attacks the main military compound in Colombo, killing at least eight people. The military launch air strikes on Tamil Tiger targets.

2006 May - Tamil Tiger rebels attack a naval convoy near Jaffna. International monitors describe the deadly attack as a "gross violation" of the 2002 ceasefire.

2006 June - 64 people are killed in a mine attack on a bus in Anuradhapura district. Days later, more than 30 people are killed in a land and sea battle between government forces and Tamil Tiger rebels.

2006 August - Tamil Tiger rebels and government forces clash in the north-east. It is the worst fighting since the 2002 ceasefire. Hundreds of people are killed and the UN says tens of thousands have fled their homes.

2006 September - The government says it has pushed Tamil Tiger rebels from the mouth of strategic Trincomalee harbour. This is seen as the first major capture of enemy territory by either side since a 2002 ceasefire.

2006 October - A suicide bomber attacks a military convoy, killing more than 90 sailors.
Tamil Tigers attack a naval base in Galle, the southern city frequented by tourists.
Peace talks resume in Geneva but fail.

2007 January - After weeks of heavy fighting the military says it has captured the Tamil Tiger stronghold of Vakarai, in the east. Tens of thousands of civilians flee the area.
President Mahinda Rajapakse's government secures a long-elusive parliamentary majority after 25 opposition MPs defect to its ranks.
Italian and US ambassadors are slightly hurt as rebels shell a delegation of diplomats touring eastern areas.

2007 March - Government troops claim continuing success in clearing eastern coastal areas of rebels. Thousands of civilians flee the fighting.
Tamil Tigers launch their first confirmed air raid, hitting a military base next to the international airport.

2007 April - Two international airlines suspend flights to Sri Lanka following another air raid by Tamil Tigers.

2007 May - Tourism slumps because of fighting.

2007 June - Police force hundreds of Tamils out of the capital, citing security concerns, but a court orders an end to the expulsions.

2007 July - Government declares it has driven rebels from Thoppigala - their last jungle stronghold in the east.

2007 October - Eight aircraft destroyed, 30 people killed in Tamil Tiger attack on Anuradhapura air force base.

2007 November - Sixteen killed in a bomb attack in Colombo.

2008 January - Government pulls out of 2002 ceasefire agreement.
Government minister DM Dassanayake dies after a roadside bomb attack on his convoy in Colombo.
Ceasefire expires.
Roadside bomb hits a civilian bus in the central district of Moneragala, killing 24.

2008 March - International panel, invited by the government to monitor investigations into alleged human rights abuses, announces that it is leaving the country. Panel member Sir Nigel Rodley says the authorities were hindering its work. Government rejects the criticism.

2008 April - Highways Minister Jeyaraj Fernandopulle is killed in a blast blamed on Tamil Tiger rebels.
Dozens of soldiers reported killed in clashes with Tamil Tigers in far north.

2008 July - Sri Lankan military says it has captured the important Tamil Tiger naval base of Vidattaltivu in the north of the island.

2008 September - Sri Lankan military continues to inch towards Killinochi. President Rajapaksa and his Government have convinced the Sinhala majority, that by capturing the rebel base, they would end the war.

September 22, 2008

Star of the day!

Thought for the day:

During times of war, hatred becomes quite respectable, even though it has to masquerade often under the guise of patriotism.


World's shortest fairy tale...

Once upon a time, a guy asked a girl "Will you marry me?"

The girl said, "NO!" And the guy lived happily ever after and went fishing,

hunting and played golf a lot and drank beer and farted whenever he wanted.


Counter-guerrilla warfare


The guerrilla can be difficult to beat, but certain principles of counter-insurgency warfare are well known since the 1950s and 1960s and have been successfully applied.

Classic guidelines

The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson, counter-insurgency expert in Malaysia, offers several such guidelines. Thompson's underlying assumption is that of a country minimally committed to the rule of law and better governance. Some governments, however, give such considerations short shrift, and their counterguerrilla operations have involved mass murder, genocide, starvation and the massive spread of terror, torture and execution. The totalitarian regimes of Hitler are classic examples, as are more modern conflicts in places like Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. In Afghanistan's anti-Mujahideen war for example, the Soviets implemented a ruthless policy of wastage and depopulation, driving over one third of the Afghan population into exile (over 5 million people), and carrying out widespread destruction of villages, granaries, crops, herds and irrigation systems, including the deadly and widespread mining of fields and pastures. See Wiki article Soviet war in Afghanistan. Many modern countries employ manhunting doctrine to seek out and eliminate individual guerrillas.

Elements of Thompson's moderate approach are adapted here:

1.The people are the key base to be secured and defended rather than territory won or enemy bodies counted. Contrary to the focus of conventional warfare, territory gained, or casualty counts are not of overriding importance in counter-guerrilla warfare. The support of the population is the key variable. Since many insurgents rely on the population for recruits, food, shelter, financing, and other materials, the counter-insurgent force must focus its efforts on providing physical and economic security for that population and defending it against insurgent attacks and propaganda.

2.There must be a clear political counter-vision that can overshadow, match or neutralize the guerrilla vision. This can range from granting political autonomy, to economic development measures in the affected region. The vision must be an integrated approach, involving political, social and economic and media influence measures. A nationalist narrative for example, might be used in one situation, an ethnic autonomy approach in another. An aggressive media campaign must also be mounted in support of the competing vision or the counter-insurgent regime will appear weak or incompetent.

3.Practical action must be taken at the lower levels to match the competitive political vision. It may be tempting for the counter-insurgent side to simply declare guerrillas "terrorists" and pursue a harsh liquidation strategy. Brute force however, may not be successful in the long run. Action does not mean capitulation, but sincere steps such as removing corrupt or arbitrary officials, cleaning up fraud, building more infrastructure, collecting taxes honestly, or addressing other legitimate grievances can do much to undermine the guerrillas' appeal.

4.Economy of force. The counter-insurgent regime must not overreact to guerrilla provocations, since this may indeed be what they seek to create a crisis in civilian morale. Indiscriminate use of firepower may only serve to alienate the key focus of counterinsurgency- the base of the people. Police level actions should guide the effort and take place in a clear framework of legality, even if under a State of Emergency. Civil liberties and other customs of peacetime may have to be suspended, but again, the counter-insurgent regime must exercise restraint, and cleave to orderly procedures. In the counter-insurgency context, "boots on the ground" are even more important than technological prowess and massive firepower, although anti-guerrilla forces should take full advantage of modern air, artillery and electronic warfare assets.

5.Big unit action may sometimes be necessary. If police action is not sufficient to stop the guerrilla fighters, military sweeps may be necessary. Such "big battalion" operations may be needed to break up significant guerrilla concentrations and split them into small groups where combined civic-police action can control them.

6.Aggressive mobility. Mobility and aggressive small unit action is extremely important for the counter-insurgent regime. Heavy formations must be lightened to aggressively locate, pursue and fix insurgent units. Huddling in static strongpoints simply concedes the field to the insurgents. They must be kept on the run constantly with aggressive patrols, raids, ambushes, sweeps, cordons, roadblocks, prisoner snatches, etc.

7.Ground level embedding and integration. In tandem with mobility is the embedding of hardcore counter-insurgent units or troops with local security forces and civilian elements. The US Marines in Vietnam also saw some success with this method, under its CAP (Combined Action Program) where Marines were teamed as both trainers and "stiffeners" of local elements on the ground. US Special Forces in Vietnam like the Green Berets, also caused significant local problems for their opponents by their leadership and integration with mobile tribal and irregular forces.[32] In Iraq, the 2007 US "surge" strategy saw the embedding of regular and special forces troops among Iraqi army units. These hardcore groups were also incorporated into local neighborhood outposts in a bid to facilitate intelligence gathering, and to strengthen ground level support among the masses.

8.Cultural sensitivity. Counter-insurgent forces require familiarity with the local culture, mores and language or they will experience numerous difficulties. Americans experienced this in Vietnam and during the US Iraqi Freedom invasion and occupation, where shortages of Arabic speaking interpreters and translators hindered both civil and military operations.

9.Systematic intelligence effort. Every effort must be made to gather and organize useful intelligence. A systematic process must be set up to do so, from casual questioning of civilians to structured interrogations of prisoners. Creative measures must also be used, including the use of double agents, or even bogus "liberation" or sympathizer groups that help reveal insurgent personnel or operations.

10.Methodical clear and hold. An "ink spot" clear and hold strategy must be used by the counter-insurgent regime, dividing the conflict area into sectors, and assigning priorities between them. Control must expand outward like an ink spot on paper, systematically neutralizing and eliminating the insurgents in one sector of the grid, before proceeding to the next. It may be necessary to pursue holding or defensive actions elsewhere, while priority areas are cleared and held.

11.Careful deployment of mass popular forces and special units. Mass forces include village self-defence groups and citizen militias organized for community defence and can be useful in providing civic mobilization and local security. Specialist units can be used profitably, including commando squads, long range reconnaissance and "hunter-killer" patrols, defectors who can track or persuade their former colleagues like the Kit Carson units in Vietnam, and paramilitary style groups. Strict control must be kept over specialist units to prevent the emergence of violent vigilante style reprisal squads that undermine the government's program.

12.The limits of foreign assistance must be clearly defined and carefully used. Such aid should be limited either by time, or as to material and technical, and personnel support, or both. While outside aid or even troops can be helpful, lack of clear limits, in terms of either a realistic plan for victory or exit strategy, may find the foreign helper "taking over" the local war, and being sucked into a lengthy commitment, thus providing the guerrillas with valuable propaganda opportunities as the stream of dead foreigners mounts. Such a scenario occurred with the US in Vietnam, with the American effort creating dependence in South Vietnam, and war weariness and protests back home. Heavy-handed foreign interference may also fail to operate effectively within the local cultural context, setting up conditions for failure.

13.Time. A key factor in guerrilla strategy is a drawn-out, protracted conflict, that wears down the will of the opposing counter-insurgent forces. Democracies are especially vulnerable to the factor of time. The counter-insurgent force must allow enough time to get the job done. Impatient demands for victory centered around short-term electoral cycles play into the hands of the guerrillas, though it is equally important to recognize when a cause is lost and the guerrillas have won.


Some writers on counter-insurgency warfare emphasize the more turbulent nature of today's guerrilla warfare environment, where the clear political goals, parties and structures of such places as Vietnam, Malaysia, or El Salvador are not as prevalent. These writers point to numerous guerrilla conflicts that center around religious, ethnic or even criminal enterprise themes, and that do not lend themselves to the classic "national liberation" template. The wide availability of the Internet has also cause changes in the tempo and mode of guerrilla operations in such areas as coordination of strikes, leveraging of financing, recruitment, and media manipulation. While the classic guidelines still apply, today's anti-guerrilla forces need to accept a more disruptive, disorderly and ambiguous mode of operation.

"Insurgents may not be seeking to overthrow the state, may have no coherent strategy or may pursue a faith-based approach difficult to counter with traditional methods. There may be numerous competing insurgencies in one theater, meaning that the counterinsurgent must control the overall environment rather than defeat a specific enemy. The actions of individuals and the propaganda effect of a subjective “single narrative” may far outweigh practical progress, rendering counterinsurgency even more non-linear and unpredictable than before. The counterinsurgent, not the insurgent, may initiate the conflict and represent the forces of revolutionary change. The economic relationship between insurgent and population may be diametrically opposed to classical theory. And insurgent tactics, based on exploiting the propaganda effects of urban bombing, may invalidate some classical tactics and render others, like patrolling, counterproductive under some circumstances. Thus, field evidence suggests, classical theory is necessary but not sufficient for success against contemporary insurgencies..."

Current guerrilla conflicts

Present ongoing guerrilla wars, and regions facing guerrilla war activity include:

 LTTE in Sri Lanka

 Arab-Israeli Conflict

 Uganda

 Zapatista Army of National Liberation, Mexico - have been relatively non-violent since 1994

 India

 Nepal

 Internal conflict in Peru

 Second Chechen War

 ETA in Spain

 FARC in Colombia

 Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan

 Darfur Conflict

 Colombian Armed Conflict

 Iran

 Conflict in Iraq

 Kurdish Unrest in Turkey

 Ivorian Civil War ended in 2004 but UNOCI is still handling the rebels who are attacking UN peacekeepers

 Islamic and Communist Insurgencies in the Philippines

 Sudan

 Second Tuareg Rebellion

Historical examples

Successful guerrilla campaigns

 Algeria (1954-1962)

 Angola (1975-1976)

 Afghani Mujahideen against the USSR

 Cuban Revolution

 East Timor (1999)

 Kosovo Liberation Army, unsuccessful until 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia

 EOKA in the expulsion of British troops from Cyprus (1955-1960)

 Eritrean War of Independence 1961 - 1991

 Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire (1821-1830)

 Arab Revolt 1916-1918

 Bangladesh Liberation War 1971

 Haitian Revolution

 Peninsular War in Spain

 Independence War in Latin America

 Indonesia

 Mozambique

 The Hezbollah group in southern Lebanon

 Philippines' during the Japanese occupation of WWII

 Rhodesian Bush War

 portions of the Wars of Scottish Independence; notably, actions led by Robert the Bruce

 Irish War of Independence 1919-1921; campaign organized by Michael Collins

 First Indochina War 1946-1954

 Vietnam War 1959-1975

 Cambodian Civil War

 People's War in Nepal

 The Partisans of Yugoslavia

 Iraq In Operation Vigilant Resolve, Operation Matador, Anbar and Diyala campaigns in overall.

 China (Communists vs. Nationalists)

 American Revolutionary War

 Nicaragua

Unsuccessful guerrilla campaigns

 Second Boer War 1899-1902

 Ukrainian nationalist partisans and guerrillas during and after the Russian Civil War

 Makhnovist anarchists and guerrillas in Ukraine after the Russian Civil War

 Basmachi rebels in Soviet Central Asia 1916-1931

 Irish Civil War 1922-23

 IRA S-Plan campaign 1939-1941 Northern Campaign (IRA) 1942-1944 Border Campaign (IRA) 1956-62

 Spanish Maquis after the Spanish Civil War

 Polish resistance movement 1939-1944, unsuccessful until USSR liberation from German occupation

 Greek Civil War

 Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) 1944-1949

 Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania 1944-1965, Forest Brothers

 Malayan Emergency

 Karen National Liberation Army in Burma

 Mau Mau Uprising

 Peshmerga forces of Kurdistan

 Philippine American War 1899-1902

 Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia 1941-1943

 Nazi German Werwolf movement 1945

 Tibet 1958-1974, resistance against Chinese occupation ultimately failed when American Central Intelligence Agency withdrew its support in context of President Richard Nixon's diplomatic overtures to the People's Republic of China

 Thailand 1964-1982 Communist Party of Thailand (CPT). It suffered major setbacks in late 1970s and an amnesty was granted by the Thai government to all of its fighters in 1982, ending a long rebellion that once had much of rural areas under control.

 Uruguay 1965-1973, the Tupamaros were suppressed by the army forces that later took power

 Argentina 1969-1981 Montoneros and ERP were suppressed by security forces around 1977

 Dominican Republic US forces suppressed Dominican guerrillas

 El Salvador Due to the Treaty

 Polisario Front in Western Sahara

 Second Sudanese Civil War 1983-2005

 Punjab Insurgency in India

 United Liberation Front of Asom in India

 Nagaland Rebels

 National Democratic Front of Bodoland in India

 Parrari in Pakistan

 Balochistan Liberation Army

 Kachin Independent Army in Burma

 Internal conflict in Peru - insurgencies led by two rival Marxist guerrilla groups, the Shining Path and Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movementfrom 1981-2000

 Armed Islamic Group (GIA) in Algeria

Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc.) to combat a larger and less mobile formal army. The guerrilla army uses ambush (draw enemy forces to terrain unsuited to them) and mobility (advantage and surprise) in attacking vulnerable targets in enemy territory.

This term means "little war" in Spanish and was created during the Peninsular War. The concept acknowledges a conflict between armed civilians against a powerful nation state army. This tactic was used by the Viet Cong and North Vietnam Army in the Vietnam War. Most factions of the Iraqi Insurgency and groups such as FARC are said to be engaged in some form of Guerrilla warfare.


The Spanish guerrillero Juan Martín Díez, known by his nom de guerre, El Empecinado.
Guerrilla means small war, the diminutive of the Spanish word guerra (war). The Spanish word derives from the Old High German word werra and from the middle Dutch word warre; adopted by the Visigoths in A.D. 5th century Hispania. The use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number, scale, and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state. The word was coined in Spain to describe their warfare in resisting Napoleon Bonaparte's French régime during the Peninsula War, its meaning was broadened to mean any similar-scale armed resistance. Guerrillero is the Spanish word for guerrilla fighter, while in Spanish-speaking countries the noun guerrilla usually denotes guerrilla army (e.g. la guerrilla de las FARC translates as "the FARC guerrilla group"). Moreover, per the OED, 'the guerrilla' was an English usage (as early as 1809), describing the fighters, not only their tactics (e.g."the town was taken by the guerrillas"), however, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare.

Guerrilla warfare as a continuum

An insurgency, or what Mao Zedong referred to as a war of revolutionary nature, guerrilla warfare can be conceived of as part of a continuum. On the low end are small-scale raids, ambushes and attacks. In ancient times these actions were often associated with smaller tribal polities fighting a larger empire, as in the struggle of Rome against the Spanish tribes for over a century. In the modern era they continue with the operations of insurgent, revolutionary and "terrorist" groups. The upper end is composed of a fully integrated political-military strategy, comprising both large and small units, engaging in constantly shifting mobile warfare, both on the low-end "guerrilla" scale, and that of large, mobile formations with modern arms.

Simplified guerrilla warfare organization

The latter phase came to fullest expression in the operations of Mao Zedong in China and Vo Nguyen Giap in Vietnam. In between are a large variety of situations - from the wars waged against Israel by Palestinian irregulars in the contemporary era, to Spanish and Portuguese irregulars operating with the conventional units of British General Wellington, during the Peninsular War against Napoleon.
Modern insurgencies and other types of warfare may include guerrilla warfare as part of an integrated process, complete with sophisticated doctrine, organization, specialist skills and propaganda capabilities. Guerrillas can operate as small, scattered bands of raiders, but they can also work side by side with regular forces, or combine for far ranging mobile operations in squad, platoon or battalion sizes, or even form conventional units. Based on their level of sophistication and organization, they can shift between all these modes as the situation demands. Successful guerrilla warfare is flexible, not static.

Strategic models of guerrilla warfare

The 'classic' three-phase Maoist model

In China, the Maoist Theory of People's War divides warfare into three phases. In Phase One, the guerrillas earn the population's support by distributing propaganda and attacking the organs of government. In Phase Two, escalating attacks are launched against the government's military forces and vital institutions. In Phase Three, conventional warfare and fighting are used to seize cities, overthrow the government, and assume control of the country. Mao's doctrine anticipated that circumstances may require shifting between phases in either directions and that the phases may not be uniform and evenly paced throughout the countryside. Mao Zedong's seminal work, On Guerrilla Warfare, as been widely distributed and applied most successfully in Vietnam, by military leader and theorist Vo Nguyen Giap, whose "Peoples War, Peoples Army" closely follows the Maoist three-phase approach, but emphasizing flexibility in shifting between guerrilla warfare and a spontaneous "General Uprising" of the population in conjunction with guerrilla forces.

The more fragmented contemporary pattern

The classical Maoist model requires a strong, unified guerrilla group and a clear objective. However, some contemporary guerrilla warfare may not follow this template at all, and might encompass vicious ethnic strife, religious fervor, and numerous small, 'freelance' groups operating independently with little overarching structure. These patterns do not fit easily into neat phase-driven categories, or formal 3-echelon structures (Main Force regulars, Regional fighters, part-time Guerrillas) as in the People's Wars of Asia.

Some jihadist guerrilla attacks for example, may be driven by a generalized desire to restore a reputed golden age of earlier times, with little attempt to establish a specific alternative political regime in a specific place. Ethnic attacks likewise may remain at the level of bombings, assassinations, or genocidal raids as a matter of avenging some perceived slight or insult, rather than a final shift to conventional warfare as in the Maoist formulation.
Environmental conditions such as increasing urbanization, and the easy access to information and media attention also complicate the contemporary scene. Guerrillas need not conform to the classic rural fighter helped by cross-border sanctuaries in a confined nation or region, (as in Vietnam) but now include vast networks of peoples bound by religion and ethnicity stretched across the globe.

Tactics of guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is distinguished from the small unit tactics used in screening or reconnaissance operations typical of conventional forces. It is also different from the activities of bandits, pirates or robbers. Such criminal groups may use guerrilla-like tactics, but their primary purpose is immediate material gain, and not a political objective.

Guerrilla tactics are based on intelligence, ambush, deception, sabotage, and espionage, undermining an authority through long, low-intensity confrontation. It can be quite successful against an unpopular foreign or local regime, as demonstrated by the Vietnam conflict. A guerrilla army may increase the cost of maintaining an occupation or a colonial presence above what the foreign power may wish to bear. Against a local regime, the guerrilla fighters may make governance impossible with terror strikes and sabotage, and even combination of forces to depose their local enemies in conventional battle. These tactics are useful in demoralizing an enemy, while raising the morale of the guerrillas. In many cases, guerrilla tactics allow a small force to hold off a much larger and better equipped enemy for a long time, as in Russia's Second Chechen War and the Second Seminole War fought in the swamps of Florida (United States of America). Guerrilla tactics and strategy are summarized below and are discussed extensively in standard reference works such as Mao's "On Guerrilla Warfare."

Types of tactical operations

Guerrilla operations typically include a variety of strong surprise attacks on transportation routes, individual groups of police or military, installations and structures, economic enterprises, and targeted civilians. Attacking in small groups, using camouflage and often captured weapons of that enemy, the guerrilla force can constantly keep pressure on its foes and diminish its numbers, while still allowing escape with relatively few casualties. The intention of such attacks is not only military but political, aiming to demoralize target populations or governments, or goading an overreaction that forces the population to take sides for or against the guerrillas. Examples range from the chopping off of limbs in various internal African rebellions, to the suicide bombings in Israel and Sri Lanka, to sophisticated manoeuvres by Viet Cong and NVA forces against military bases and formations.
Whatever the particular tactic used, the guerrilla primarily lives to fight another day, and to expand or preserve his forces and political support, not capture or holding specific blocks of territory as a conventional force would. Below is a simplified version of a typical ambush attack by one of the most effective of post-WWII guerrilla forces, the Viet Cong (VC).

Ambushes on key transportation routes are a hallmark of guerrilla operations, causing both economic and political disruption. Careful advance planning is required for operations, indicated here by VC preparation of the withdrawal route. In this case - the Viet Cong assault was broken up by American aircraft and firepower. However, the VC did destroy several vehicles and the bulk of the main VC force escaped. As in most of the Vietnam conflict, American forces would eventually leave the area, but the insurgents would regroup and return afterwards. This time dimension is also integral to guerrilla tactics.


Guerrilla warfare resembles rebellion, yet it is a different concept. Guerrilla organization ranges from small, local rebel groups of a few dozen guerrillas, to thousands of fighters, deploying from cells to regiments. In most cases, the leaders have clear political aims for the warfare they wage. Typically, the organization has political and military wings, to allow the political leaders "plausible denial" for military attacks. The most fully elaborated guerrilla warfare structure is by the Chinese and Vietnamese communists during the revolutionary wars of East and Southeast Asia. A simplified example of this more sophisticated organizational type - used by revolutionary forces during the Vietnam War, is shown below.

Surprise and intelligence

For successful operations, surprise must be achieved by the guerrillas. If the operation has been betrayed or compromised it is usually called off immediately. Intelligence is also extremely important, and detailed knowledge of the target's dispositions, weaponry and morale is gathered before any attack. Intelligence can be harvested in several ways. Collaborators and sympathizers will usually provide a steady flow of useful information. If working clandestinely, the guerrilla operative may disguise his membership in the insurgent operation, and use deception to ferret out needed data. Employment or enrollment as a student may be undertaken near the target zone, community organizations may be infiltrated, and even romantic relationships struck up as part of intelligence gathering. Public sources of information are also invaluable to the guerrilla, from the flight schedules of targeted airlines, to public announcements of visiting foreign dignitaries, to Army Field Manuals. Modern computer access via the World Wide Web makes harvesting and collation of such data relatively easy. The use of on the spot reconnaissance is integral to operational planning. Operatives will "case" or analyze a location or potential target in depth- cataloguing routes of entry and exit, building structures, the location of phones and communication lines, presence of security personnel and a myriad of other factors. Finally intelligence is concerned with political factors- such as the occurrence of an election or the impact of the potential operation on civilian and enemy morale.

Relationships with the civil population

Relationships with civilian populations are influenced by whether the guerrillas operate among a hostile or friendly population. A friendly population is of immense importance to guerrilla fighters, providing shelter, supplies, financing, intelligence and recruits. The "base of the people" is thus the key lifeline of the guerrilla movement. In the early stages of the Vietnam War, American officials "discovered that several thousand supposedly government-controlled 'fortified hamlets' were in fact controlled by Viet Cong guerrillas, who 'often used them for supply and rest havens'." Popular mass support in a confined local area or country however is not always strictly necessary. Guerrillas and revolutionary groups can still operate using the protection of a friendly regime, drawing supplies, weapons, intelligence, local security and diplomatic cover.

An apathetic or hostile population makes life difficult for guerrilleros and strenuous attempts are usually made to gain their support. These may involve not only persuasion, but a calculated policy of intimidation. Guerrilla forces may characterize a variety of operations as a liberation struggle, but this may or may not result in sufficient support from affected civilians. Other factors, including ethnic and religious hatreds, can make a simple national liberation claim untenable. Whatever the exact mix of persuasion or coercion used by guerrillas, relationships with civil populations are one of the most important factors in their success or failure.

Use of terror

In some cases, the use of terror can be an aspect of guerrilla warfare. Terror is used to focus international attention on the guerrilla cause, kill opposition leaders, extort money from targets, intimidate the general population, create economic losses, and keep followers and potential defectors in line. As well, the use of terrorism can provoke the greater power to launch a disproportionate response, thus alienating a civilian population which might be sympathetic to the terrorist's cause. Such tactics may backfire and cause the civil population to withdraw its support, or to back countervailing forces against the guerrillas.
Such situations occurred in Israel, where suicide bombings encouraged most Israeli opinion to take a harsh stand against Palestinian attackers, including general approval of "targeted killings" to kill enemy cells and leaders. In the Philippines and Malaysia, communist terror strikes helped turn civilian opinion against the insurgents. In Peru and some other countries, civilian opinion at times backed the harsh countermeasures used by governments against revolutionary or insurgent movements.


Guerrillas must plan carefully for withdrawal once an operation has been completed, or if it is going badly. The withdrawal phase is sometimes regarded as the most important part of a planned action, and to get entangled in a lengthy struggle with superior forces is usually fatal to insurgent, terrorist or revolutionary operatives. Withdrawal is usually accomplished using a variety of different routes and methods and may include quickly scouring the area for loose weapons, evidence cleanup, and disguise as peaceful civilians.


Guerrillas typically operate with a smaller logistical footprint compared to conventional formations; nevertheless, their logistical activities can be elaborately organized. A primary consideration is to avoid dependence on fixed bases and depots which are comparatively easy for conventional units to locate and destroy. Mobility and speed are the keys and wherever possible, the guerrilla must live off the land, or draw support from the civil population in which he is embedded. In this sense, "the people" become the guerrilla's supply base. Financing of both terrorist and guerrilla activities ranges from direct individual contributions (voluntary or non-voluntary), and actual operation of business enterprises by insurgent operatives, to bank robberies, kidnappings and complex financial networks based on kin, ethnic and religious affiliation (such as that used by modern Jihadist/Jihad organizations).
Permanent and semi-permanent bases form part of the guerrilla logistical structure, usually located in remote areas or in cross-border sanctuaries sheltered by friendly regimes. These can be quite elaborate, as in the tough VC/NVA fortified base camps and tunnel complexes encountered by US forces during the Vietnam War. Their importance can be seen by the hard fighting sometimes engaged in by communist forces to protect these sites. However, when it became clear that defence was untenable, communist units typically withdrew without sentiment.


Guerrilla warfare is often associated with a rural setting, and this is indeed the case with the definitive operations of Mao and Giap, themujahadeen of Afghanistan, the Ejército Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP) of Guatemala, the Contras of Nicaragua, and the FMLN of El Salvador. Guerrillas however have successfully operated in urban settings as demonstrated in places like Argentina and Northern Ireland. In those cases, guerrillas rely on a friendly population to provide supplies and intelligence. Rural guerrillas prefer to operate in regions providing plenty of cover and concealment, especially heavily forested and mountainous areas. Urban guerrillas, rather than melting into the mountains and jungles, blend into the population and are also dependent on a support base among the people. Rooting guerrilleros out of both types of areas can be difficult.

Foreign support and sanctuaries

Foreign support in the form of soldiers, weapons, sanctuary, or statements of sympathy for the guerrillas is not strictly necessary, but it can greatly increase the chances of an insurgent victory. Foreign diplomatic support may bring the guerrilla cause to international attention, putting pressure on local opponents to make concessions, or garnering sympathetic support and material assistance. Foreign sanctuaries can add heavily to guerrilla chances, furnishing weapons, supplies, materials and training bases. Such shelter can benefit from international law, particularly if the sponsoring government is successful in concealing its support and in claiming "plausible denial" for attacks by operatives based in its territory.
The VC and NVA made extensive use of such international sanctuaries during their conflict, and the complex of trails, way-stations and bases snaking through Laos and Cambodia, the famous Ho Chi Minh Trail, was the logistical lifeline that sustained their forces in the South. Also, the United States funded a revolution in Colombia in order to take the territory they needed to build the Panama Canal. Another case in point is theMukti Bahini guerrilleros who fought alongside the Indian Army in the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 against Pakistan that resulted in the creation of the state of Bangladesh. In the post-Vietnam era, the Al Qaeda organization also made effective use of remote territories, such as Afghanistan under the Taliban regime, to plan and execute its operations.

Guerrilla initiative and combat intensity

Able to choose the time and place to strike, guerrilla fighters will usually possess the tactical initiative and the element of surprise. Planning for an operation may take weeks, months or even years, with a constant series of cancellations and restarts as the situation changes. Careful rehearsals and "dry runs" are usually conducted to work out problems and details. Many guerrilla strikes are not undertaken unless clear numerical superiority can be achieved in the target area, a pattern typical of VC/NVA and other "Peoples War" operations. Individual suicide bomb attacks offer another pattern, typically involving only the individual bomber and his support team, but these too are spread or metered out based on prevailing capabilities and political winds.

Whatever approach is used, the guerrilla holds the initiative and can prolong his survival though varying the intensity of combat. This means that attacks are spread out over quite a range of time, from weeks to years. During the interim periods, the guerrilla can rebuild, resupply and plan. In the Vietnam War, most communist units (including mobile NVA regulars using guerrilla tactics) spent only a limited number of days a year fighting. While they might be forced into an unwanted battle by an enemy sweep, most of the time was spent in training, intelligence gathering, political and civic infiltration, propaganda indoctrination, construction of fortifications, or stocking supply caches. The large numbers of such groups striking at different times however, gave the war its "around the clock" quality.

Our World As It Was Millions Of Years Ago!

Land masses have coalesced and separated in several cycles over Earth's geological
history. In the most recent cycle, all land masses formed a single supercontinent,
Pangaea, by the end of the Paleozoic. Pangaea gradually separated during the Mesozoic into two smaller supercontinents, Laurasia in the north and Gondawanaland in the south, separated by the Tethys Sea in the east.

Modern continental masses are recognizable by the beginning of the Cenozoic, but were joined in different patterns than at present. For example, Australia and South America were joined through Antarctica in the early Cenozoic, the Indian subcontinent joined Eurasia only ~10MYBP, North and South America became joined for the first time 4 ~ 5 MYBP, and the Bering Strait between western North America and eastern Eurasia opened 3 ~ 4 MYBP. Continents continue to drift: the Bering Strait has been a landbridge at various times in the Holocene.

September 19, 2008

Sri Lanka’s 30 Smallest Books!

1. The Code of Ethics for Lawyers in Sri Lanka

2. The Sri Lankan Book of Foreplay

3. Incorruptible Police Officers of Sri Lanka

4. How To Conduct Yourself In Public by Mervin Silva

5. The World Guide to Good Sri Lankan Beer

6. How To Make Your Relationships Last by Duminda Silva & Anarkali Akarsha

7. Safe Places to Travel in Sri Lanka

8. A Portrait of Integrity by Milinda Moragoda

9. Truth About The War by Brigadier Udaya Nanayakara

10. Contraception by Ellawala Medananda Thero

11. 100 Ways To Cook Beef by Ellawala Medananda Thero

12. The Wit and Wisdom of Mervin Silva An autobiography by Mervin Silva

13. My Wild Years by Ranil Wickramasinghe

14. Sri Lanka’s Most Popular Politicians

15. Career Opportunities for University Students in Sri Lanka

16. Slave Island - A Travel Guide

17. Collection of Motivational Speeches by Rathnasiri Wickramanayake

18. Everything Men Know about Women by Kolu

19. Guide to Etiquette by Mervin Silva

20. The Dambana Phone Directory

21. Great Women Drivers Of Sri Lanka

22. Beauty Secrets by Indrani Perera

23. How To Score A Test Century by Mutthia Muralitharan

24. Things I Love About Chinthana Mahinda by Chandrika Kumaranatunga

25. My Wonderful Life by D.B.Wijetunge

26. Things I Can’t Afford by Lalith Kothalawala

27. Things I Won't Do For Money by the 17 MPs who crossed over to the Government

28. Free And Fair Elections by Mahinda Rajapaksa

29. How To Win A War In Six Months by Gotabaya Rajapaksa

30. Solving Problems Through Dialogue by Vellupillai Prabahakaran